A way to prevent flood and drought
In Indonesia flood is a usual disaster. It happens every year, especially when the rainy season come. Even though it had caused a lot of looses, including economic, health problems, there had been no significant action to solve flood problem, until the biggest flood happened in Jakarta in January 2007. That time the flood lasted for weeks before being completely absorbed into the ground. Many people, as well as government, residents and scientists started to think about how to prevent it and to make some solution about it seriously. Flood with all of its cause can be prevented by using biopores which give a lot of benefit to the environment, have some advantages compared to another technology, and are made and used in a certain way.
Flood can be caused by several things. One of the causes is heavy rain in long duration. The rest are mostly caused by human. Excessive building constructions decrease absorption area which is very crucial when precipitation happen. Besides, deforestation and bad condition of river basin and drainage system also trigger flood. In addition, people often throw away garbage into the river or gutter. That could stop the flow of the water and causing flood.
To prevent flood, there is a technology named Biopore, or often called Lubang Serapan Biopori (LSB). Biopore is a simple technology in the form of water absorber holes with diameter 10 cm and height 80-100 meters which are used for land conservation. It is founded by Ir. Kamir R brata SM, staf of Land Affair Department and Land Resources Faculty of Agriculture IPB.
Advantages which biopore has make it very reasonable for us to make biopores in our surrounding. Biopores are useful for land conservation. They prevent rainwater from flowing to the lower land as run off water and being accumulated in channels. They absorb the water into the ground, thus the supply of underground water is increasing, preventing water crisis to occur.  That mechanism could prevent flood and  landslide in the rainy season, and drought in the dry season. Moreover, biopores hold organic trash, especially from house hold trash, such as leftovers from meals and dry leaves. If there are biopores at every house, garbage problem can be solved significantly. Garbage collector will work easier since organic and inorganic garbage has been separated. Later, the organic trash in the biopores will turn into compost which we can sell or use to fertilize plants.
Compared to other technology in solving flood problem, Biopore is the cheapest one. It is effective, efficient, simple and can be done by any people, while absorption well is expensive, space wasting, and susceptible to landslide. Moreover, biopore only have diameter 10 cm while absobtion well’s diameter is one meter. On Earth Day, 22 April 2007, about 3000 students and residents in Bogor made biopores in union. This program will be continued until 3 June 2007, with the target 22.400 biopores installed in 68 kelurahan. Biopore is very suitable to be installed in settlements which is commonly water resistant since the ground is blocked by cement and building.
Installing and using biopore is not a difficult thing to do. Firstly, holes with height 80-100 cm and diameter 10 cm are made by hand drill which has special head. This sort of drill is designed and made by Bogor Agriculture Institute (IPB). The holes should not be more than 100 cm depth, otherwise worms and other decomposer organisms will lack of oxygen, thus they can’t work maximally. Put some organic trash, such as leaves, twigs and biodegradable household trash. Organic trash enable underground animals (e.g. worm) and microorganisms to grow and make natural pores which is very useful for water absorption and oxygen supply in the soil. On drain, absorption hole can be made every 100 cm. Ideally, one house have 10 holes, thus in the 20th day, organic trash can be thrown away into the first hole, since the prior trash has been becoming compost.
In conclusion, to prevent flood and drought biopore/LSB is badly needed, especially in a densely populated area which buildings are so many. Biopore has so many advantage that we have no reason to decline installing it. By preventing flood losses will not happen and no body will suffer. So, let’s make biopores on our house/yard. This is a relatively small effort, but could draw big return.(Anoer)

New climate report: More bad news

By SETH BORENSTEIN, AP Science Writer Sat Mar 10, 2:23 PM ET

WASHINGTON - The harmful effects of global warming on daily life are already showing up, and within a couple of decades hundreds of millions of people won't have enough water, top scientists will say next month at a meeting in Belgium.

At the same time, tens of millions of others will be flooded out of their homes each year as the Earth reels from rising temperatures and sea levels, according to portions of a draft of an international scientific report obtained by The Associated Press.

Tropical diseases like malaria will spread. By 2050, polar bears will mostly be found in zoos, their habitats gone. Pests like fire ants will thrive.

For a time, food will be plentiful because of the longer growing season in northern regions. But by 2080, hundreds of millions of people could face starvation, according to the report, which is still being revised.

The draft document by the authoritative Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change focuses on global warming's effects and is the second in a series of four being issued this year. Written and reviewed by more than 1,000 scientists from dozens of countries, it still must be edited by government officials.

But some scientists said the overall message is not likely to change when it's issued in early April in Brussels, the same city where European Union leaders agreed this past week to drastically cut greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. Their plan will be presented to and other world leaders at a summit in June.President Bush

 The report offers some hope if nations slow and then reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, but it notes that what's happening now isn't encouraging.

"Changes in climate are now affecting physical and biological systems on every continent," the report says, in marked contrast to a 2001 report by the same international group that said the effects of global warming were coming. But that report only mentioned scattered regional effects.

"Things are happening and happening faster than we expected," said Patricia Romero Lankao of the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo., one of the many co-authors of the new report.

The draft document says scientists are highly confident that many current problems — change in species' habits and habitats, more acidified oceans, loss of wetlands, bleaching of coral reefs, and increases in allergy-inducing pollen — can be blamed on global warming.

For example, the report says North America "has already experienced substantial ecosystem, social and cultural disruption from recent climate extremes," such as hurricanes and wildfires.

But the present is nothing compared to the future.

Global warming soon will "affect everyone's life ... it's the poor sectors that will be most affected," Romero Lankao said.

And co-author Terry Root of Stanford University said: "We truly are standing at the edge of mass extinction" of species.

The report included these likely results of global warming:

_Hundreds of millions of Africans and tens of millions of Latin Americans who now have water will be short of it in less than 20 years. By 2050, more than 1 billion people in Asia could face water shortages. By 2080, water shortages could threaten 1.1 billion to 3.2 billion people, depending on the level of greenhouse gases that cars and industry spew into the air.

_Death rates for the world's poor from global warming-related illnesses, such as malnutrition and diarrhea, will rise by 2030. Malaria and dengue fever, as well as illnesses from eating contaminated shellfish, are likely to grow.

_Europe's small glaciers will disappear with many of the continent's large glaciers shrinking dramatically by 2050. And half of Europe's plant species could be vulnerable, endangered or extinct by 2100.

_By 2080, between 200 million and 600 million people could be hungry because of global warming's effects.

_About 100 million people each year could be flooded by 2080 by rising seas.

_Smog in U.S. cities will worsen and "ozone-related deaths from climate (will) increase by approximately 4.5 percent for the mid-2050s, compared with 1990s levels," turning a small health risk into a substantial one.

_Polar bears in the wild and other animals will be pushed to extinction.

_At first, more food will be grown. For example, soybean and rice yields in Latin America will increase starting in a couple of years. Areas outside the tropics, especially the northern latitudes, will see longer growing seasons and healthier forests.

Looking at different impacts on ecosystems, industry and regions, the report sees the most positive benefits in forestry and some improved agriculture and transportation in polar regions. The biggest damage is likely to come in ocean and coastal ecosystems, water resources and coastal settlements.

The hardest-hit continents are likely to be Africa and Asia, with major harm also coming to small islands and some aspects of ecosystems near the poles. North America, Europe and Australia are predicted to suffer the fewest of the harmful effects.

"In most parts of the world and most segments of populations, lifestyles are likely to change as a result of climate change," the draft report said. "Net valuations of benefits vs. costs will vary, but they are more likely to be negative if climate change is substantial and rapid, rather than if it is moderate and gradual."

This report — considered by some scientists the "emotional heart" of climate change research — focuses on how global warming alters the planet and life here, as opposed to the more science-focused report by the same group last month.

"This is the story. This is the whole play. This is how it's going to affect people. The science is one thing. This is how it affects me, you and the person next door," said University of Victoria climate scientist Andrew Weaver.

Many — not all — of those effects can be prevented, the report says, if within a generation the world slows down its emissions of carbon dioxide and if the level of greenhouse gases sticking around in the atmosphere stabilizes. If that's the case, the report says "most major impacts on human welfare would be avoided; but some major impacts on ecosystems are likely to occur."



Kelompok Peduli Lingkungan – SMP Kr. Petra 3 Surabaya


Kelompok yang berdiri 7 April 2005 ini diprakarsai oleh siswa-siswi SMP Kr Petra 3 Surabaya sendiri. Kelompok ini berawal dari keprihatinan mereka akan lingkungan sekolah mereka sendiri. Lantas mereka memulainya dengan membudayakan membuang sampah sendiri pada tempat yang sesuai, sampai dengan sosialisasi kepada masyarakat sekitar tentang pentingnya merawat lingkungan.  

Saat pertama kali berkegiatan, mereka tidak mendapatkan respon dari teman-teman mereka sendiri. Bahkan, protes mereka dapatkan dari sana-sini. Namun, mereka tidak putus asa.

Pada akhirnya rencana mereka pun berhasil. Hampir semua siswa SMP Kristen Petra 3 Surabaya saat ini telah membuang sampah pada tempatnya. Mereka juga telah memilah sendiri sampah organik dan sampah non-organik. Pihak sekolah pun mendukung penuh upaya yang mereka lakukan.

KPL sendiri telah memiliki taman Tanaman Obat Keluarga  (TOGA) yang mereka buat bersama warga sekitar sekolah di kawasan Manyar Sabrangan. Sebelumnya daerah itu cukup kumuh dan padat penduduk. Setelah beberapa kali melihat lokasi, KPL berinisiatif untuk menanam beberapa jenis tanaman obat keluarga ini. Kontan para penduduk senang dengan itu. Hasilnya cukup memuaskan.

Tidak hanya di perumahan warga saja yang ditanami TOGA. ”SMP Kr. Petra 3 pun kami tanami,” terang Norman. Menurutnya, ada 70 jenis tanaman TOGA yang ditanam di sekolah.

KPL SMP Kristen Petra 3 Surabaya telah memiliki segudang prestasi dari tingkat daerah hingga tingkat nasional. Undangan pun silih berganti mereka dapatkan untuk turut mensosialisasikan kepedulian lingkungan hidup mereka kepada masyarakat luas. Mereka turut bangga pula, karena Pangeran Lingkungan Hidup 2005 berasal dari SMP Kr. Petra 3, yang juga anggota KPL (Kelompok Peduli Lingkungan).

Kelompok yang dibina Ir. Gunawan ini telah menghasilkan beberapa karya. Diantaranya, makanan unggas, pupuk, atau alat pendeteksi pencemaran air. ”Sebenarnya karya-karya itu akan kami produksi secara massal, tetapi masih terhalang pendanaan,” kata Norman.

Kedepan, mereka berharap KPL SMP Kristen Petra 3 dapat dikenal banyak pihak dari berbagai lapisan. (bez)


Tim Hijau SMP Negeri 16 Surabaya

Bermula dari membuang sampah sendiri pada tempatnya, beberapa siswa SMP Negeri 16 Surabaya berinisiatif untuk mendirikan sebuah tim yang bergerak dalam dunia lingkungan khususnya untuk mereka sendiri. Sejak berpartisipasi pada penganugerahan Pangeran dan Putri Lingkungan Hidup 2005, tim hijau mereka buat.

Tim yang dikomandani oleh Jane Ester tidak berjalan semulus yang dikira. Berbagai protes mereka dapat dari teman–teman mereka sendiri. ”Ada yang bilang kalo di Tim Hijau itu selalu berhadapan dengan sampah yang kotor, dan membuat tubuh terkena penyakit,” kata Jane Ester Debora Anastasia Tampi. Namun, protes itu tidak membuat mereka mati langkah. Berbagai kegiatan pun mereka laksanakan sendiri.

”Mulai memberikan contoh kepada teman–teman akan pentingnya lingkungan sampai pembuatan hutan sekolah kami lakukan sendiri,” jelas Ester. Dengan bekerjasama dengan Klub Tunas Hijau mereka mulai membuat komposter sendiri untuk diletakkan di kantin sekolah. ”Selama ini teman-teman kalo ke kantin, pasti sisa makanannya dibiarkan saja di piring,” tambah Ester. Menurutnya, agar sampah yang dihasilkan tidak diletakkan sembarangan, mereka menaruh komposter/alat pembuat kompos dari sisa makanan atau sampah non-organik.

Tim Hijau SMP Negeri 16 Surabaya juga melakukan budidaya Bekicot. Binatang yang selama ini menjijikkan bagi sebagian orang, tetapi tidak berlaku bagi Tim Hijau SMP Negeri 16 Surabaya ini. Mereka membudidayakan Bekicot diantaranya untuk mengurangi jumlah sampah daun-daunan, mengingat bekicot makanannya daun. ”Kandangnya hanya kotak kayu yang yang ditutup dengan kawat persegi,” kata Ester.

Ada satu proyek lingkungan hidup yang sudah berlangsung bertahun-tahun. Proyek itu ialah taman TOGA (Tanaman Obat Keluarga). Uniknya, jika di tempat lain, Toga hanya sebatas beras kencur, sinom atau kunir, tapi tidak di SMP Negeri 16 Surabaya. Mereka dapat mengkreasikan aneka Toga yang selama ini banyak dibuat di kebanyakan tempat.

"Kami biasa membuat Beras Kencur Coffee Blend, yang terbuat dari beras kencur, kopi, susu kental manis, madu, buah wortel dan jambu biji. Rasanya enak sekali. Selain itu juga berkhasiat untuk menyegarkan tubuh. Mengingat, banyaknya serat yang terkandung dalam minuman ini,” kata Ester.

Di waktu mendatang, Tim Hijau SMP Negeri 16 Surabaya ini berharap seluruh siswa dapat peduli pada lingkungan hidup. ”Semoga teman-teman siswa SMP Negeri 16 Surabaya ke depan  tidak lagi membuang sampah sembarangan. Juga berperilaku ramah lingkungan hidup di kehidupan sehari-hari, kata Ester. (bez)

Profil Klub Tunas Hijau

Klub TUNAS HIJAU ialah organisasi lingkungan hidup non-profit, yang besar dari the young people yang berbasis di Surabaya. KTH berawal dari pengiriman 5 orang Pramuka dari Jawa Timur ke Australia Maret 1999. Sejak itu, KTH terus konsisten dalam melakukan upaya-upaya nyata untuk membantu lingkungan hidup menjadi lebih baik.

Terbukti, dengan kekonsistenan tersebut melalui masyarakat, KTH menerima Surabaya Academy Award 2004 dalam bidang lingkungan hidup. Pada SAA 2004 ini KTH ialah organisasi lingkungan hidup pertama yang mendapatkannya. KTH juga mendapatkan Delta FM Surabaya Award 2005 untuk kategori lingkungan hidup dari Radio Delta FM Surabaya.

Klub TUNAS HIJAU pernah menerima beberapa penghargaan lingkungan hidup lain di tingkat local dan internasional.

Di tingkat lokal, pada Mei 2003 Klub TUNAS HIJAU mendapatkan penghargaan dari Wali Kota Surabaya atas kepeloporannya dalam upaya-upaya pelestarian lingkungan hidup di Kota Surabaya.  Pada Oktober 2002, Klub Tunas Hijau mendapatkan Miranda Environmental Award dari Millennium Kids Australia, yang diserahkan di Perth, Australia Barat.

Eksistensi awal Klub Tunas Hijau pada tahun 1999 dimulai dengan kegiatan lingkungan hidup yang berbasis komunitas. Saat itu diselenggarakan Bersih-Bersih Kenjeran tepatnya 23 September 1999 sebagai bagian dari Clean Up the World Internasional. Program lingkungan hidup serupa juga dilaksanakan secara serentak di 37 kota/kabupaten di seluruh Jawa Timur. Di Surabaya, Bersih-Bersih Pantai Kenjeran diikuti oleh 6.830 orang.

Klub TUNAS HIJAU adalah organisasi lingkungan hidup yang dinamis, yang terus bergerak, berinovasi dan berkembang melalui program-program nyata untuk menciptakan bumi yang lebih baik. Paling sedikit dua kali dalam sebulan program lingkungan hidup dilaksanakan.

Sejak 2000, Klub TUNAS HIJAU memiliki program lingkungan hidup bersama dengan Millennium Kids Australia, Cross Cultural Environmental Education Exchange Australia Indonesia. Pada program ini, setiap tahun KTH melakukan kunjungan ke Australia Barat, demikian juga sebaliknya dengan Millennium Kids Australia. Program ini bukanlah sekedar kunjungan, tetapi memiliki muatan khusus untuk mencari inovasi baru dalam membuat program lingkungan.

Anak-Anak KTH berhasil mendapat kepercayaan untuk mengikuti International Children’s Conference on the Environment di Amerika Serikat. Delegasi anak-anak KTH adalah satu-satunya delegasi anak-anak dari Indonesia, serta delegasi anak-anak pertama sejak dilaksanakannya ICCE empat kali sebelumnya. Mengingat, persyaratan utama untuk mengikuti conference ini ialah memiliki project lingkungan hidup.

KTH memiliki kawasan binaan di Surabaya, yaitu 8 (delapan) hutan kota. Dirintis sejak 2002 oleh Pangeran dan Putri Lingkungan Hidup 2002. Dengan segala sumber daya pendukung yang serba terbatas, KTH terus berupaya seoptimal mungkin untuk menjaga eksistensinya.

Sejak 2002, KTH menggelar agenda tahunan yaitu Penganugerahan Pangeran & Putri Lingkungan Hidup untuk anak-anak usia 10 – 14 tahun, yang selalu menghadirkan grand prizes yang bukan sekedar grand prizes.

KTH terbiasa memobilisasi massa dalam jumlah ribuan untuk mengikuti program lingkungan hidup tanpa ‘iming-iming’ peserta akan mendapatkan sesuatu.

KTH rutin melakukan pelatihan lingkungan hidup 3 hari di Trawas bagi pelajar SMA di Surabaya dan sekitarnya. Young Eco People (YEP) Training. Program ini tidak sekedar pelatihan biasa tanpa kelanjutan. Tapi, para remaja yang mengikuti program ini diajak untuk lebih tertantang berkontribusi nyata untuk menciptakan lingkungan hidup yang lebih baik. YEP Training kali terakhir dilaksanakan pada 9-11 Februari 2005.

KTH selalu melibatkan lembaga swasta dalam melaksanakan program-programnya. Dengan prinsip hubungan simbiosis mutualisme kerjasama terus dikembangkan.

KTH rutin melakukan kegiatan ke sekolah-sekolah dan daerah-daerah lain di luar Kota Surabaya

Dengan metode ‘learning by doing’ serta ‘by kids for kids’ program yang disampaikan kepada anak-anak terasa lebih tersampaikan.

Metode-metode yang dikembangkan dalam kampanye lingkungan hidup pun semakin lama semakin berkembang seiring trend masyarakat.

Yang membanggakan, inovasi tersebut munculnya dari generasi-generasi ‘kesekian’ KTH.


See also: 

Pengelolaan Sampah    Perubahan Iklim   Donasi WWF






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